Accusation—A formal charge of criminal wrongdoing.
Acquittal—The legal certification, usually by jury verdict, that an accused person is not guilty of the charged offense.
Arraignment—The initial step in a criminal prosecution whereby the defendant is brought before the court to hear the charges and to enter a plea.
Burden of Proof—A party's duty to prove a disputed assertion or charge.
Crime—An act that the law makes punishable; the breach of a legal duty treated as the subject-matter of a criminal proceeding.
Double Jeopardy—The fact of being prosecuted or sentenced twice for substantially the same offense.
Due Process—The conduct of legal proceedings according to established rules and principles for the protection and enforcement of private rights, including notice and the right to a fair hearing before a tribunal with the power to decide the case.
Felony—A serious crime usually punishable by imprisonment for more than one year or by death.
Guilty—A plea of a criminal defendant who does not contest the charges; or, a jury verdict convicting the defendant of the crime charged.
Indictment—The formal written accusation of a crime, made by a grand jury and presented to a court for prosecution against the accused person.
Misdemeanor—A crime that is less serious than a felony and is usually punishable by fine, penalty, forfeiture, or confinement (usually for a brief term) in a place other than prison (such as a county jail).
† All definitions come from Black’s Law Dictionary