Cause of action: A group of operative facts giving rise to one or more bases for suing; a factual situation that entitles one person to obtain a remedy in court from another person.
Civil Procedure: The body of law — usually rules enacted by the legislature or courts — governing the methods and practices used in civil litigation.
Class action: A lawsuit in which the court authorizes a single person or a small group of people to represent the interests of a larger group.
Complaint: The initial pleading that starts a civil action and states the basis for the court's jurisdiction, the basis for the plaintiff's claim, and the demand for relief.
Discovery: The act or process of finding or learning something that was previously unknown.
Judgment: A court's final determination of the rights and obligations of the parties in a case.
Jurisdiction: A government's general power to exercise authority over all persons and things within its territory; especially, a state's power to create interests that will be recognized under common-law principles as valid in other states.
Pleading: A formal document in which a party to a legal proceeding (especially a civil lawsuit) sets forth or responds to allegations, claims, denials, or defenses.
All definitions come from Black’s Law Dictionary, 11th ed. (2019).